During World War II, Latinas were contributors to the war effort, these Rosies worked in manufacturing along side women from across the American homefront. We found a record of Mina Mendoza, a young woman born in Hermosillo, Mexico. She made her way to the United States with her family in 1927, crossing the border on foot at Douglas, Arizona. When the war started, Mina, 5’ 1” and 114 lbs, she was operating a milling machine in the Los Angeles area. Ms. Mendoza became a U.S. citizen in 1944.
In the holdings of the National Archives at Riverside, men and women of Hispanic heritage are intertwined in many of our records, including records documenting citizenship.
¡Celebración de la Herencia Hispana!
To pay tribute to the many generations of Hispanic Americans that have enriched our nation’s history, the National Archives at Riverside will be highlighting some of our holdings relating to Hispanic American history in our region (Southern California, Arizona, and Clark County, NV), including records relating to Private Land Claims, Immigration and Naturalization, military service and many more.
For more information about Hispanic Heritage Month, see http://hispanicheritagemonth.gov/
National Hispanic Heritage Month/Mes de la Herencia Hispana
National Hispanic Heritage Month is celebrated from September 15 to October 15 in celebration and recognition of the histories, cultures and contributions of American citizens whose ancestors came from Spain, Mexico, the Caribbean and Central and South America.
AFIS billboard posters. Hispanic Heritage Month. Defense Billboard #81, 01/01/2000.
National Archives Identifier: 6507500
This celebration started in 1968 as Hispanic Heritage Week under President Lyndon Johnson and was later expanded by President Ronald Reagan in 1988 to cover a 30-day period starting on September 15 and ending on October 15. It was enacted into law on August 17, 1988, on the approval of Public Law 100-402.
The day of September 15 is significant because it is the anniversary of independence for the Latin American countries Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras and Nicaragua. In addition, Mexico and Chile celebrate their independence on September 16 and September 18, respectively. Also, Columbus Day or Día de la Raza, which is October 12, falls within this 30 day period.
According to this Census, 50.5 million people or 16% of the population are of Hispanic or Latino origin. This represents a significant increase from 2000, which registered the Hispanic population at 35.3 million or 13% of the total U.S. population.
Share with us in this special annual tribute by learning and celebrating the generations of Hispanic Americans who have positively influenced and enriched our nation and society.
More about National Hispanic Heritage Month at: Prologue: Pieces of History » National Hispanic Heritage Month/Mes de la Herencia Hispana
Visit the National Hispanic Heritage Month Web Portal at http://www.hispanicheritagemonth.gov/, featuring resources from the National Archives and Records Administration, the Library of Congress and the National Endowment for the Humanities, National Gallery of Art, National Park Service, Smithsonian Institution, and United States Holocaust Memorial Museum.
IN PROCESS AT THE NATIONAL ARCHIVES
The following is a guest posting by the National Archives at Riverside’s Summer Intern, Jeffrey Castel De Oro
Having recently graduated with my Masters in Library and Information Science degree (MLIS) from San José State University (SJSU) I was understandably eager to put my conceptual studies to practical use. I was pleased to discover via Facebook’s Society of American Archivists’ SJSU Alumni Group a listing for an internship position at the National Archives at Riverside as part of the Federal Diversity Internship Initiative. This program is offered through the Washington Center, an independent organization that supports personal growth, leadership and civic responsibility, and designed to give students and recent graduates the opportunity to gain professional experience working within the United States government.
My internship experience involved processing a collection of records dealing with irrigation projects and water rights on Native American lands along the Colorado River. It is comprised of survey maps, water project blueprints, on-site photographs, financial data and annual reports to the Department of Interior and other agencies. Much of the initial work on this material involved what is known as holdings maintenance; making sure that all of the records are properly housed, with any potentially damaging materials such as rust-generating staples and paper clips removed, and photographs safely housed in protective polyester film sleeves. Then the records can be arranged into useful series, organized to assure ease of discoverability for future patrons.
Following the chronological progression of these records illuminates the history of the Indian Irrigation Service as part of the United States Department of Interior. The earliest records are surveys of potential irrigation issues on Native American lands. This information develops into specific plans for projects such as diversion dams, progress reports from multiple construction site visits, and evaluations of the results of these projects. A substantial portion of the records goes on to tell the story of how the legal rights to this diverted water ultimately came to be challenged by both individuals and the states along the Colorado River.
These photos represent one of the largest projects in the collection, the construction of Coolidge Dam between 1924 and 1928 as part of the San Carlos Reservation Irrigation Project. This unique three-dome structure spans the Gila River and created what is now San Carlos Lake in Arizona.
After specializing in archival studies during my degree program, it was a genuine thrill to actually find myself working in the National Archives. In addition to gaining significant practical records processing experience, it was a valuable opportunity to interact with the employees of the archive, establishing professional relationships and networks that I will continue to build upon throughout my career as an archivist.
Football Friday: LA Rams
Chuck Knox knows football. He’s been the head coach of three NFL teams—the LA Rams, the Buffalo Bills, and the Seattle Seahawks—and was Coach of the Year in 1973, 1980, and 1984. He also coached at the high school and collegiate levels, and assisted Charlie Bradshaw, Weeb Ewbank, and Joe Schmidt.
As coach of the LA Rams, Knox brought to the team to five straight NFC West championships. Due to however escalating conflict with then-owner Carroll Rosenbloom and the “Mud Bowl” loss in 1977, however, he moved on to coach the Buffalo Bills in 1978.
Knox presented this signed LA Rams football to President Ford after he left office in 1977. It features the signatures of the 1977 team members, including Pat Haden, Vince Ferragamo, and Hall of Famers Tom Mack and Joe Namath. In his post-Presidential years Ford became a member of the Honorary Advisory Board of the LA Rams.
Despite Knox’s return to coach the team in the early 1990s, the LA Rams’ record began to suffer. In 1995 the franchise owners moved the team to St Louis.
Sigh, the L.A. Rams.
Back to School 90’s Style
Most likely, if you went to school in the 1990s, you either owned Lisa Frank notebooks, pens, or stickers or knew someone who did. Established in 1979, Lisa Frank’s eponymous line of school supplies and novelty items epitomized trends in the late 1980’s and early 1990s with its use of rainbows, neon colors, and surreal drawings of koala bears, gumball machines, and various other animals and objects. At the peak of its popularity in 1996, the company took in over $60 million in sales.
Although successful, the company faced tough and often unscrupulous competition. On December 11, 1991 in civil case 91-725, Lisa Frank, Inc. (LFI) filed suit against Impact International, Inc., Style Club, Inc., and their respective owners in the U.S. District Court for Tucson, Arizona claiming that their products infringed on trademarks and trade dresses held by LFI.
In the lawsuit, LFI alleged the current President of Impact International’s subsidiary company Style Club, Inc., Barry Silberman, shared confidential trade information with both his wife and Impact International’s CEO, Kenneth Litvack as part of a scheme “to acquire as much confidential information as possible regarding LFI’s customers,…product and design ideas and marketing strategies, with the intent of establishing competing and infringing product lines” while employed as Vice President of Sales for Lisa Frank from June 1990 to January 1991.
Beginning in September 1991, LFI noticed Valentine’s Day, Easter, and “Back to School” products marketed by Style Club which duplicated Lisa Frank products and packaging in-development or marketed during Silberman’s tenure with the company. In the complaint (Document 1), the plaintiffs cite 46 examples of LFI products that Style Club “copied, reproduced, or imitated” and include 40 color prints showcasing Lisa Frank’s trademarks and trade dresses distinctive designs and color patterns such as its “Flying Junkfood” design and “bold rainbow colors gradually fading into one another” and the Style Club items in question.
In response, the defendants argued that designers often employed rainbows in novelty products and youth stationary and that utilizing several colors and designs was not only commonplace in stationary geared towards children and teenagers but “deemed necessary to catch the eye of juvenile and teen-age purchasers”. To illustrate that argument, their exhibits included side-by-side photos of Style Club, Inc. products next to LFI products and similarly-colored products like Bic pens. Yet, in May 1993, Judge Richard Bilby sided with the plaintiffs ordering the defendants to pay Lisa Frank, Inc. $1.1 million dollars plus interest and ordering a permanent injunction against Impact International, Inc. to prevent them from “imitating, copying, counterfeiting or otherwise infringing LFI’s Trade Dress, Trademarks and/or Copyrights.”
What are your thoughts?? Learn more about this case and other Federal records created in Arizona, southern California, and Clark County, Nevada and held at the National Archives at Riverside on our website, http://www.archives.gov/riverside/.
After the inception of the Apollo program in 1961, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the United States Geological Survey (USGS) collaboratively launched a series of geology education training courses for Apollo astronauts to help them understand geological principles and analysis for future manned spaceflights to the Moon. In this photograph from April 17, 1964, future Apollo 11 astronaut, Neil Armstrong, (left) and future Apollo 1 astronaut, Edward H. White (right) study the notes of an unknown NASA employee (center) during a geology field trip to Big Bend National Park in Texas.
This photograph was compiled by the Branch of Astrogeology in a series called “Astronaut Geology Education Files, 1962 - 1974.” It was recently identified during archival processing along with many other interesting items. The National Archives at Riverside maintains 76 cubic feet of archival materials generated and compiled by the Branch of Astrogeology in Record Group 57 – Records of the United States Geological Survey. For more information on our holdings, please feel free to contact us. We have many cool and historically significant records relating to astrogeology and lunar exploration!
Howard the Duck
Released in 1986, the movie Howard the Duck bombed at the box office and received equally scathing reviews from critics. Yet the character Howard the Duck first appeared in writer Stephen Gerber’s Adventure into Fear: Man-Thing (#19) comic book series published by Marvel comics in December 1973 as an ancillary figure to the featured Man-Thing. In 1975, Gerber further developed the character of Howard the Duck into a “cigarsmoking, Kirkegaard-quoting duck who fights evil in fantasy worlds” for a comic book of the same name which ran from 1976 through 1979. Throughout the years, Howard fought villains ranging from the Savage Dragon to the Kidney Lady and even ran for president as part of the fictitious All-Night Party in 1976.
In 1978, Marvel removed Gerber from the series citing creative differences. Two years later, Gerber responded by suing the Marvel Corporation and its parent company Cadence Industries, Stan Lee and the writers associated with the series for copyright infringement in civil case 80-3840 tried in the U.S. District Court for the Central District of California (Los Angeles). On November 5, 1982, Judge David V. Kenyon ruled in favor of the defendant stating that Gerber created Howard the Duck as part of “work for hire” agreement with Cadence Industries and as such, “Cadence owns all right, title and interest in and to the Character and the Works, including copyrights, trademarks, goodwill and the property rights pertaining thereto.” The two parties later reached a confidential settlement outside of court wherein Marvel retained its ownership of the character.
Today, the lawsuit serves as one of the first publicized legal battles over creator ownership. It helped spur the creation of the Creator’s Bill of Rights aimed at guarding creators against large corporations’ exploitative “work for hire” practices. The Bill of Rights and its stress on creator ownership in the 1980s influenced comic book creators such as Peter Laird and Kevin Eastman, creators of the widely-successful Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles franchise, to self-publish comics rather than share their works with companies like Marvel.
The National Archives at Riverside holds this case among thousands of civil and criminal case files from southern California, Arizona, and Clark County, Nevada. We welcome you to explore these records and the many other series and subjects within our holdings.
From the holdings of the National Archives at Riverside, Records of the U.S. District Courts (RG 21)
The real treasures [of the National Archives] go home at night.
THE RIGHT TO COMEDIC EXPRESSION?
This week is the 45th Anniversary of the termination of Tom and Dick Smothers from CBS. According to court documents, on April 3, 1969, CBS terminated their contract with Smothers Brothers, ending the successful run of the Smothers Brothers’ Comedy Hour. The Brothers responded by filing suit in the U.S. District Court in Los Angeles, California, complaining that CBS’s “purpose and intent…was to impose a censorship over the content of the material in the programs…although [they] knew that the content was expression entitled to protection under the First Amendment to the Constitution of the United States.”
Their case was not universally supported, as evidenced by a letter from Maude Lobdell of Loma Linda, California, filed in the case. ”I hope you lose all suits…Your show needed to be censored,” she complained, “You offend.”
The Brothers won their legal battle, and opened the door for contemporary political comedians such as John Stewart and Stephen Colbert.
This case is held by the National Archives at Riverside in our holdings of the U.S. District Court for the Central District of California (Los Angeles).